Out of the Frame features several types of printmaking techniques.

Learn about the types of prints featured in the show below:


Chris Paul, W̱JOȽEȽP (Tsartlip), Coast Salish (b.1969), Salish Sea, 2015, Giclée on canvas

Giclées are digital fine-art prints produced by inkjet printers. Designs are either produced digitally, or copied on high -resolution scanners, and printed on various materials, including paper and canvas. The term “Giclée” is a French word meaning a spurt or spray. This process involves no screens or other mechanical devices. As this process reproduces colours with a high level of accuracy, giclées are often used to reproduce paintings.






Relief Print


Angela Marston, Stz’uminus, Coast Salish (b.1975), Change, 2016, Monoprints on paper, cedar, copper, shell

Relief prints are produced by cutting or etching a surface (such as wood, metal, or linoleum), leaving behind a design in relief. Water or oil-based ink is rolled onto the cut or etched surface, then paper is placed on top of the surface and pressed. Finally, the paper is pulled off the surface, revealing the design. There are several styles of relief prints, including woodcut (using a wood surface), linocut (using a linoleum surface), and metal cut (using a metal surface). These styles all produce different effects in the finished print.




Offset Print or Offset Lithograph

Doug LaFortune, Tsawout, Coast Salish (b.1953), Spring Rush, n.d., Offset lithograph on paper

Offset printing, or offset lithography, is a printing method used for mass-production (e.g. for art cards). An image is placed on a metal plate, transferred (or offset) onto rubber rollers, then onto paper (or other media). The metal plate does not contact the paper, thus it is called “offset” printing. Offset lithography employs the lithography process. In lithographic printing, an oil-based ink is continually rolled onto a surface, while a water-based film (called the “fountain solution”), is applied to the negative areas of the design, keeping them free of ink. The offset printing method is used for printing on many different types of surfaces, as the rubber is flexible enough to transfer images onto rough surfaces (such as cloth or wood). Offset printing also maintains a consistent image quality for a high volume of prints.

Screen Print or Serigraph Print

6. Dylan Thomas, Salmon Spirits, 2009

Qwul’thilum Dylan Thomas, Lyackson, Coast Salish (b.1986), Salmon Spirits, 2009, Serigraph on paper

Screen printing, also known as serigraph or silk-screen printing, is a process whereby ink is pulled through a stencilled screen. Originally screens were made from silk, but now are mainly made of nylon. Before a screen is used, a design is transferred onto it using an emulsion, which, when exposed to light, blocks all areas of the screen except for the design to be printed. The screen is then placed on top of paper (or other media). Ink is then pulled through the screen using a squeegee, leaving the design on the print media. This process is repeated (referred to as layers) to produce multiple colours.


For a complete guide to the screenprinting process, read Andy MacDougall‘s excellent book Screen Printing Today: The Basics.

Screenprinting Today